Case Definition

Clinical assessment

  • URI: Rhinorrhea, sneezing, coughing, low grade fever5
  • Sinusitis: Head congestion, facial pain, and purulent nasal discharge that progresses to productive cough, suspect bacterial infection if worsening after 7-14 days6,5,
  • Pharyngitis: Sore throat, exudate, tonsil enlargement, fever5,6
  • Acute bronchitis: Productive cough, fever, rhonchi5, can persist up to 14 days6,

Red Flags

Pneumonia: Fever, cough, tachypnea, chest pain5 with decreased air entry, wheezes, crackles, rhonchi6

  • Adults: Macrolide or doxycycline5, 6,, augmentin, respiratory fluoroquinolone6, amoxicillin5
  • Peds: Bactrim5
  • Nebulizer treatment6
  • Ceftriaxone if severe (both adults and peds) 5
  • Refer neonates to hospital5

Management

General recommendations

URI: Symptomatic management6, 8, limit antibiotic use9,18 , hygiene practices to reduce transmission8

  • Encourage fluids5,18, tea or hot water with honey (not for children <12mos) 18
  • Saline nasal drops for infants (1/4 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp baking soda, 1 cup boiled and cooled water) and provide bulb syringes9.

Pharyngitis: Rapid strep or mono spot test if exudative6

  • Antibiotics only if strep test positive or signs of bacterial infection8,6

Pharmacologic management

  • Acetaminophen or NSAID for fever5, 13, 18
  • Decongestants9 , antihistamine cough syrup5, 9, 13, 19
  • Sinusitis: Amoxicillin5, 6
  • Pharyngitis: Amoxicillin or penicillin VK5, 6, 8,
  • Second line: Macrolide5, 6, 8,
  • Acute bronchitis: May add albuterol inhaler PRN6
  • Consider amoxicillin or macrolide x 7-10 days11 (Peds: TMP-SMX) 5
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1. Organization A

Locations: Nicaragua
Trips per year: 4
Format of trips: Mobile medical clinics and standing clinics
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

2. Organization B

Locations: Guatemala
Trips per year: Variable
Format of trips: Clinics
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

3. Organization C

Locations: Haiti
Trips per year: Variable
Format of trips: Clinic
Setting: Urban
Type of Organization: Faith-based

4. Organization D

Locations: Dominican Republic
Trips per year: 3
Format of trips: Clinic
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

5. Organization E

Locations: Haiti
Trips per year: 7
Format of trips: Not mentioned
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

6. Organization F

Locations: Honduras, Ecuador, Belize, Guyana, Guatemala
Trips per year: 5
Format of trips: Mobile brigades
Setting: Rural and Urban
Type of Organization: Faith-based

7. Organization G

Locations: Ecuador, Guatemala, Dominican Republic
Trips per year: 100 (spread over 6 sites)
Format of trips: Mobile brigades
Setting: Rural and Urban
Type of Organization: Secular

8. Organization H

Locations: Ecuador
Trips per year: 3
Format of trips: Mobile brigades in schools/Clinics in health centers
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

9. Organization I

Locations: Honduras
Trips per year: 1
Format of trips: Mobile brigades in 20 villages
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Faith-based

10. Organization J

Locations: Jamaica, Haiti
Trips per year: 4
Format of trips: Mobile brigades, Permanent clinics/hospital medicine
Setting: Rural and urban
Type of Organization: Secular

11. Organization K

Locations: Haiti
Trips per year: 4
Format of trips: Clinic
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

12. Organization L

Locations: Guatemala, Nicaragua
Trips per year: 3
Format of trips: Mobile clinics
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Faith-based

13. Organization M

Locations: Nicaragua, Honduras
Trips per year: 51
Format of trips: Mobile brigades, Hospital-based
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Faith-based

14. Organization N

Locations: Guatemala
Trips per year: 12
Format of trips: Hospital
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

15. Organization O

Locations: Honduras
Trips per year: Up to 50
Format of trips: Mobile brigades in school and churches
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Faith-based

16. Organization P

Locations: Haiti
Trips per year: Variable
Format of trips: Mobile brigades and clinics
Setting: Rural and urban
Type of Organization: Secular

17. Organization Q

Locations: Dominican Republic, Haiti
Trips per year: 12 to 15
Format of trips: Mobile brigades
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

18. Organization R

Locations: Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Trips per year: Hundreds
Format of trips: Mobile brigades in community centre or school
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

19. Organization S

Locations: Honduras
Trips per year: 4
Format of trips: Mobile brigades, Specialty hospital services
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Secular

20. Organization T

Locations: Haiti
Trips per year: Approximately 40
Format of trips: Mobile clinics in 14 villages and Standing clinic
Setting: Rural
Type of Organization: Faith-based