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Case Definition

Clinical assessment

  • URI: Rhinorrhea, sneezing, coughing, low grade feverE
  • Sinusitis: Head congestion, facial pain, and purulent nasal discharge that progresses to productive cough, suspect bacterial infection if worsening after 7-14 daysE,F,
  • Pharyngitis: Sore throat, exudate, tonsil enlargement, feverE,F
  • Acute bronchitis: Productive cough, fever, rhonchiE, can persist up to 14 daysF,

Red Flags

Pneumonia: Fever, cough, tachypnea, chest painE with decreased air entry, wheezes, crackles, rhonchiF

  • Adults: Macrolide or doxycyclineE, F,, augmentin, respiratory fluoroquinoloneF, amoxicillinE
  • Peds: BactrimE
  • Nebulizer treatmentF
  • Ceftriaxone if severe (both adults and peds) E
  • Refer neonates to hospitalE

Management

General recommendations

URI: Symptomatic managementF, H, limit antibiotic useI,R , hygiene practices to reduce transmissionH

  • Encourage fluidsE,R, tea or hot water with honey (not for children <12mos) R
  • Saline nasal drops for infants (1/4 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp baking soda, 1 cup boiled and cooled water) and provide bulb syringesI.

Pharyngitis: Rapid strep or mono spot test if exudativeF

  • Antibiotics only if strep test positive or signs of bacterial infectionF,H

Pharmacologic management

  • Acetaminophen or NSAID for feverE, M, R
  • Decongestants9 , antihistamine cough syrupE, I, M, S
  • Sinusitis: AmoxicillinE, F
  • Pharyngitis: Amoxicillin or penicillin VKE, F, H,
  • Second line: MacrolideE, F, H,
  • Acute bronchitis: May add albuterol inhaler PRNF
  • Consider amoxicillin or macrolide x 7-10 daysK (Peds: TMP-SMX) E